Grades

Jurisdiction Grades*

In this round of grading, our team reviewed 119 ADU ordinances received by California’s Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD) between December 2019 and February 2021.1 We evaluated the text of the ordinances submitted to HCD, and when information was missing from an ordinance (e.g., for data on fees), we searched the jurisdiction’s website. With some 540 jurisdictions in California, this represents 22% of the state. In some cases, jurisdictions may have modified their ordinances but failed to notify the state. When jurisdictions fail to submit an ADU ordinance to the state, State Law governs their ADU regulations. In these instances, we do not provide a grade.2 

 

In order to “grade” the ordinances, we created a rubric to score the ADU regulations of each city or county. There are 12 criteria which we assess ordinances against to determine compliance with the 2019 ADU reforms to State Legislation, which became effective on January 1, 2020. In each criterion, jurisdictions generally earn 5 points for compliance with State law, if applicable, and -5 points for non-compliance with CA Code. In certain instances, jurisdictions can receive additional points (up to 15) for best practices and are penalized (deducted points) for programmatic requirements that are not technically illegal but that hinder the ability for residents to construct an ADU. Points within each grading criterion are cumulative. We added the scores for each of the criteria to get a final numerical score for each jurisdiction, which we then used to construct a curve and assign letter grades.

A good grade indicates that jurisdictions are acting in good faith when developing their ADU programs, and generally reflects a regulatory environment friendly to ADU construction. Jurisdictions with high scores do not impose excessive zoning and permitting barriers that could get in the way of ADU construction. A bad grade reflects a regulatory environment that is either non-compliant with State Legislation, or places unnecessary and/or significant barriers in the way of homeowners constructing ADUs. Jurisdictions with low grades generally have burdensome regulatory requirements that restrict ADU construction despite the requirements of the state ADU regulations.

1 For results of our first round of ordinance grading as presented in our report The ADU Scorecard (prior to the 2019 State Legislation effective date), email us at info@aducalifornia.org and request “old scorecard grades.”
2 Presumably, these jurisdictions must follow state standards, and as such they likely they deserve a good grade; but without the ordinance, we have insufficient evidence to assess their implementation.

We reviewed the 201 ordinances received by California’s Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD) by September 6, 2019. We evaluated the text of the ordinances submitted to HCD, and when information was missing from an ordinance (e.g., for data on fees), we searched the jurisdiction’s website. With some 540 jurisdictions expected to submit ordinances, this represents 37.2% of the state. In some cases, jurisdictions have modified their ordinances but failed to notify the state; we have evaluated an additional three ordinances in this category, for a total of 204. When jurisdictions fail to submit an ordinance, State law governs their ADU regulations. In these instances, we do not provide a grade.1

In order to “grade” the ordinances, we created a rubric to score the ADU regulations of each city or county. There are 16 equally weighted criteria. Some of these come from the legislation passed in 2016 or 2017, while others come from the 2019 reforms. Three of these offer opportunities to gain extra credit, which include Parking Requirements for ADUs, and Maximum Size for Attached and Detached ADUs.2 Each criterion is valued between 5-20 points, with the exception of Additional Layers of Entitlement or Review, for which jurisdictions may only receive negative points. Points within each grading criteria are cumulative. We added the scores for each of the criteria to get a final numerical score for each jurisdiction, which we then used to construct a curve and assign letter grades.

A good grade reflects a regulatory environment friendly to ADU construction. Jurisdictions with high scores do not impose excessive zoning and permitting barriers that could get in the way of ADU construction. A bad grade reflects a regulatory environment that places unnecessary and/or significant barriers in the way of homeowners constructing ADUs. Jurisdictions with low grades generally have burdensome regulatory requirements that restrict ADU construction despite the requirements of the state ADU ordinance.

1 Presumably, by following state standards, they deserve a good grade; but without the ordinance, we have insufficient evidence to assess their implementation.

2 Jurisdictions received extra credit for Parking Requirements for ADUs if they reduce parking barriers beyond what is required in CA ADU law. For example, not requiring parking for ADUs that are studios (with zero bedrooms) or allowing parking in tandem and/or setbacks. We also gave jurisdictions extra credit for Maximum Size for Attached and Detached ADUs if they did not include the language limiting the maximum size percent increase for either or both criteria. This is another indicator that the jurisdiction is reducing barriers to ADU development.

    • The median ADU ordinance grade in California is a B+, and the mean grade is a B. Not Surprisingly, grades varied across the state.

    • When compared to our last round of grades, we found that more jurisdictions were in compliance with relevant State Legislation in this round of grading.

    • The most common instances of non-compliance with State Legislation that we found included jurisdictions imposing subjective design review standards, not complying with the state-mandated setback requirements, and imposing land use regulations that would limit the construction of one, 800 sf ADU that is 16′ tall with 4′ side and rear setbacks.  

 

    • Across California, jurisdictions tend to score points for allowing generous ADU sizes, as well as including detailed language such as about junior ADUs (JADUs).

    • Jurisdictions varied in terms of the number of ADUs permitted per lot. Most jurisdictions complied with State Legislation in terms of the number of permissible ADUs, while some did not mention the opportunity to build ADUs on lots with multi-family homes.

    • ADU impact fee and capacity charge information was often missing from ADU ordinances and public-facing materials online, thus causing jurisdictions to lose points.

 

    • Jurisdictions received extra credit for best practices including having up-to-date public-facing ADU information online, a dedicated ADU contact person, pre-approved ADU plans, ADU affordability provisions, and amnesty ADU programs.
*These grades do not account for any ADU ordinances that were not submitted to the California Department of Housing & Community Development (HCD), or ordinances that were adopted before December of 2019 or after February 7, 2021. We conducted two separate rounds of grading for 2019 and 2021, changing our methodology between the two periods to reflect changes in state ADU laws.
We also did not grade any interim, draft, or urgency ordinances that were submitted to HCD in the aforementioned time period.
All permitting and construction data sourced from the California Department of Housing & Community Development’s Annual Progress Report (APR) data, and processed using HCDs methodology.
For results of our first round of ordinance grading as presented in our report The ADU Scorecard (prior to the 2019 State Legislation effective date), email us at info@aducalifornia.org and request “old scorecard grades.”
Letter Grade Points
A+ 79 <
A 69 to 78
A- 59 to 68
B+ 49 to 58
B 39 to 48
B- 29 to 38
C+ 19 to 28
C 9 to 18
C- -1 to 8
D+ -11 to -2
D- -31 to -22
F < - 32
Criterion Definition Rationale
Lot Configuration This category includes: (a) lot size (enforced minimum area of a lot which an ADU is built on) requirements, and; (b) how ADUs must comply with the maximum lot coverage and/or Floor Area Ratio (FAR) requirements for the underlying parcel. California Assembly Bills (AB) 68 and 881 prohibit jurisdictions from imposing lot size minimums on ADU projects. Jurisdictions may use unreasonable lot size minimums as a way to prevent the construction of ADUs. Jurisdictions that include ADUs in the lot coverage and/or FAR calculations for the underlying parcel may limit the size and overall ability to construct an ADU. State Legislation prohibits jurisdictions from imposing lot size minimums/FAR requirements in a way that would prevent the construction of one, 800 square foot, ADU. Our rubric penalizes jurisdictions from noncompliance with State Legislation, and rewards cities and counties that exempt ADUs from FAR/lot coverage requirements.
Parking Requirements (a) Number and configuration of required parking spaces for new ADUs, and; (b) replacement parking for the primary unit if a garage or parking structure is converted into or demolished in conjunction with the construction of an ADU. Stringent vehicle parking requirements can serve as a major deterrent to a resident who wishes to construct an ADU. Further, AB 68/AB 881 prohibit cities and counties from requiring replacement parking spaces if garage, carport, or covered parking space is demolished or converted to create an ADU. This rubric rewards jurisdictions for imposing low/no parking requirements for ADU projects, and rewards them for compliance with the five standard parking exemptions included in the CA code.
Setback Requirements (a) Setback rules for a garage or parking structure which is converted into an ADU. (b) Setback rules for an ADU which is a newly constructed structure and not the product of the conversion of a previous structure. AB 494 prohibits jurisdictions from imposing setback requirements for a garage or parking structure which is converted into an ADU. Further, AB 68/881 prohibits jurisdictions from requiring that existing nonconforming zoning setback conditions be corrected as a condition for ADU permit approval, and imposes a maximum of a 4' side and rear yard setback for new construction ADUs. By requiring large setbacks, jurisdictions are restricting the accessibility of ADU construction for homeowners.
Maximum Size Maximum floor area (in square feet) of the ADU allowed by the ordinance. Includes the maximum size for: (a) attached ADUs, b) detached ADUs, and; c) size limits for building expansion in converted ADUs California AB 68/881 states that the maximum ADU size requirement cannot be less than 850 sqft, or 1,000 sqft if the ADU has more than 1 bedroom (can be reduced to 800 square feet if an ADU is proposed in conjunction with a JADU). Additionally, cities and counties cannot impose size limitations based on a percentage of the square footage of the existing primary dwelling unit for detached ADUs. This rubric rewards jurisdictions for imposing generous maximum size requirements for ADUs, and penalizes them for limiting the size of the proposed ADUs or for noncompliance with state law. State legislation (AB 68/881) requires jurisdictions to allow for a 150 square foot ministerial expansion of existing accessory buildings/ structures that are proposed to be converted into ADUs. This rubric incentivizes jurisdictions to expand upon this, and allow for the ministerial approval of a greater expansion of accessory buildings/structures, as this removes potential barriers to ADU construction for homeowners and reduces the project permitting timeline.
Height Limit Maximum height (in feet) of the ADU stated in the ordinance. Jurisdictions may inhibit residents’ ability to construct an ADU by providing unreasonably strict height limits. Per AB 68/881, the minimum height limit jurisdictions may impose for ADUs is 16', but a maximum height limit of 16’ may be imposed if the ADU is proposed in conjunction with a JADU. We issued a grade based on the average points received for each applicable height limit in the event that more than one height limit was stated in an ordinance (i.e., one height limit for detached, and another for attached ADUs).
Multiple ADUs and Multi-Family Zoning Districts Zoning districts within which ADU construction is allowed (single-family or multiple-family). Limiting the allowable zoning districts for ADUs prevents some homeowners from building ADUs and mitigates the effectiveness of ADUs as a strategy to combat the State's housing affordability crisis. State legislation require jurisdictions to permit ADUs and JADUs in all residential and mixed-use zoning districts. AB 68/881 also requires that jurisdictions permit ADUs on multifamily parcels. This rubric incentivizes jurisdictions that expand the areas where ADUs and JADUs are permitted, rewards jurisdictions for allowing a larger quantity of ADUs/JADUs than required by state law, and penalizes cities and counties for noncompliance.
Review Timeframe Number of days that may pass after an ADU application is submitted before the application is ministerially approved. California Assembly Bills 68/881 require that ADU and JADU applications be ministerially approved within 60 days. By delaying the process of ministerial approval, jurisdiction make it more difficult for a homeowner to obtain permits and begin construction.
Fees Common fees associated with unit construction including building permit or application fee, utility fees, connection or capacity charges, park fees, affordable housing fees, and school fees. California Senate Bill 13 restricts jurisdictions from imposing capacity charges or connection fees for utilities on an ADU created out of existing space from an existing single family home or accessory building. It also states that no impact fees can be imposed on ADUs smaller than 750 square feet, and any impact fees assessed for larger ADUs must be proportional to the square footage of the primary residence. This criteria grades jurisdictions for compliance with State Law. Fees may act as a major deterrent to residents, especially low-income residents, who wish to construct an ADU.
Junior Accessor Dwelling Unit (JADU) Language Contents of ordinance language and rules regarding junior accessory dwelling units and efficiency units. JADUs and efficiency units are a very accessible option for residents who do not have the resources to construct a detached accessory dwelling unit. AB 68/881 requires jurisdictions to ministerially permit one ADU. This criteria rewards jurisdictions for allowing multiple JADUs, and penalizes them for noncompliance with state law.
Owner Occupancy Requirement Requirements for the owner of the ADU and primary dwelling unit to live in either the accessory dwelling unit or the primary dwelling unit. California Senate Bill 13 prohibits jurisdictions from imposing owner-occupancy requirements on standard ADUs/the primary dwelling unit until 1/1/2025. This rubric rewards jurisdictions for compliance with state legislation, and for not imposing owner occupancy requirements on JADUs as well.
Extra Credit for ADU Program Best Practices Awards jurisdictions bonus points for certain ADU Program best practices. This criteria awards bonus points for practices that reduce barriers to ADU construction including developing pre-approved ADUs, offering an ADU amnesty program, providing local financing for ADUs, and having a dedicated ADU counter/contact person.
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WILLITSA-312018
WILLOWS--00--
WINDSORA-2182018
WINTERSC-322018
WOODLAKE--00--
WOODLAND--30--
WOODSIDEB+3162017
YOLO COUNTY--57--
YORBA LINDAD1682017
YOUNTVILLEC+442018
YREKA--00--
YUBA CITY--00--
YUBA COUNTY--116--
YUCAIPA--2013--
YUCCA VALLEY--00--
RIVERSIDEC+NANA2019